All this data is potentially out of date, and should be taken with a truckload of salt
Gallente Prime, or sometimes just "Luminaire", is the sixth planet in the Luminaire system, and is the original home of the Gallente. It is home to the magnificent city of Caille, and its crystalline central boulevard. Despite being home to the Gallente race, it is not the de jure capital of the Federation - that role belonging to Villore.
Although no firm information can be ascertained on the ecological and demographical state of Gallente Prime, it is likely an ethnically mixed but Gallente-dominated society, being the cultural capital of the Federation. It is known that Gallente Prime is a fairly hospitable world - the Gallente having recovered technologically far faster than their combative neighbors the Caldari.
Settlement and Collapse
The Planet was originally settled by French settlers from Tau Ceti, who give the modern-day Gallente their ideals of liberty and equality in a democratic state.
After the EVE Gate collapsed, the Gallente fared better than most other colonies, largely due to the habitable, non-hostile of nature of Gallente Prime. Other colonies such as Caldari Prime had not been fully terraformed, and thus resorted to reverse-engineering the terraforming equipment that had been abandoned at the collapse of society in the cluster.
The First Gallente-Caldari_War
The war between the Gallente and the Caldari initially revolved around the system of Luminaire - the home of Gallente Prime and Caldari Prime. As the closest planet to Caldari Prime and, at the time, home to a large proportion of the infrastructure of the Federation Navy and its support agencies, when the schism occurred between the Caldari and the rest of the Federation, Gallente Prime was both a staging ground for the Federation Navy and a target for the Caldari.
Although the Federation won the battle for Luminaire, capturing Caldari Prime and forcing the Caldari back into their newly claimed territories, it was not without great losses on the surface of Gallente Prime. When the Caldari decided to pull back from the Luminaire system and evacuate the populace of Caldari Prime, their month-long campaign of distractions against the Federation to draw attention away from their home planet would result in Admiral Yakiya Tovil-Toba taking the Kairiola - a water freighter hull that forms the basis of the modern Chimera carrier - into the atmosphere, breaking up and hitting several key locations on Gallente Prime, doubtless killing thousands of people. The scheme succeeded and Caldari Prime was successfully evacuated with the relocation of the populace to the New Caldari system. This left the entire Luminaire system under Federal control for nearly two hundred years.
While no longer the government seat of the Gallente (which has moved to Villore), Caille is the economic and cultural capital of Gallente Prime. It is the birthplace of the University of Caille, one of the most respected schools in New Eden. It is also the home of the famous Crystal Boulevard, a street full of crystalline buildings where nearly anything can be bought and sold; it rests atop a pavement of thick synthetic diamond that protects a secure government bunker.
The ship of Yakia Tovil-Toba plummeted primarily into this city; its destruction became a rallying cry of the Gallente war effort. In the modern day there is a New Hueromont.
Events of 110.06
The ominous prospect of the glassing of the most revered planet in the Federation has cast a shadow over the world since June of YC 110, when the entire Caldari Navy was ordered to retake the Gallente-occupied Caldari homeworld of Caldari Prime by Tibus Heth. A Caldari Navy Leviathan with an escort fleet was left in orbit of Caldari Prime with orders to glass Gallente districts on Caldari Prime and then the entirety of Gallente Prime should the Federation launch military assaults on any Caldari targets as retribution.
Host to execution
In the aftermath of the Caldari invasion, Gallente Prime was the host to the execution of former Grand Admiral Anvent Eturrer. The even was held in a specific open arena that was specially adapted for the execution. It could hold millions of people and possessed towers that held vid-screens.